Q&A: Model disgorgement—the key to fixing AI bias and copyright infringement?

Example of dataset emulation. We show samples of an emulated dataset of Oxford Flowers, which captures the original distribution while maintaining high CLIP distance from the original data. Credit: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (2024). DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2307304121 By now, the challenges posed by generative AI are no secret. Models like OpenAI’s ChatGPT, Anthropic’s […]

Generating empathetic machine responses through emotion tracking and constraint guidance

Graphical abstract. Credit: Frontiers of Computer Science (2023). DOI: 10.1007/s11704-023-2792-7 Enabling machines to communicate like humans is a long-term goal of open-domain dialogue generation. To achieve this goal, more and more studies on dialogue generation focus on the key factor, emotion. The empathetic dialogue system aims to recognize user’s emotion and situation, then generates responses […]

Sarcasm, notoriously difficult to interpret, demystified by multimodal approach

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Oscar Wilde once said that sarcasm was the lowest form of wit, but the highest form of intelligence. Perhaps that is due to how difficult it is to use and understand. Sarcasm is notoriously tricky to convey through text—even in person, it can be easily misinterpreted. The subtle changes in tone […]

‘Noise’ in the machine: Human differences in judgment lead to problems for AI

The noise level observed in ComVE annotations when controlling the minimum (a) and maximum (b) allowable labels for each turker (we omit the residual in these two figures as, similar to what was observed earlier for TG-CSR, it was nearly coincidental with the level noise curve). We also report the statistics of statements categorized by […]

Aurora supercomputer breaks exascale barrier

Aurora’s exascale computing power will provide researchers with advanced capabilities for simulations, AI and data analysis. Credit: Argonne National Laboratory Aurora’s speed and artificial intelligence capabilities will transform scientific research and enable breakthroughs in some of the world’s most pressing challenges, from climate and materials science to energy storage and fusion energy. The Aurora supercomputer […]

Researchers improve scene perception with innovative framework

The proposed Clip-based Knowledge Transfer and Relational Context Mining (CKT-RCM). Credit: Wang Fan Led by Prof. Liu Yong from the Hefei lnstitutes of Physical Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, researchers have proposed a novel framework, called Clip-based Knowledge Transfer and Relational Context Mining (CKT-RCM), to address the long-tail distribution problem in computer vision. […]

Degradation-adaptive neural network for jointly single image dehazing and desnowing

Schematic overview of the proposed degradation adaptive neural network. Credit: Frontiers of Computer Science (2024). DOI: 10.1007/s11704-023-2764-y In harsh winter scenes, the captured images often suffer from haze and snow degradations simultaneously, which significantly affect the performance of high-level computer vision tasks. Most existing restoration methods are either specialized to address only one type of […]

3D video conferencing tool lets remote user control the view

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Collaborating on a physical object when two people aren’t in the same room can be extremely challenging, but a new remote conferencing system allows the remote user to manipulate a view of the scene in 3D, to assist in complex tasks like debugging complicated hardware. The system, called SharedNeRF, combines two […]

Multiplexed neuron sets make smaller optical neural networks possible

(A) A traditional fully connected neural network. The layers are connected by black lines corresponding to weights. The neurons separately realize the summation and nonlinear activation functions without influencing others. (B) An example of a nonlinear activation function and how it can be conceptually multiplexed in a single device. Credit: Yi-Feng Liu et al. Seeking […]

Researchers conduct survey on deduplication systems

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain A review published in the International Journal of Grid and Utility Computing has investigated ways in which the increasing problem of duplicate data in computer storage systems might be addressed. Solutions to this problem could improve storage efficiency, system performance, and reduce the overall demand on resources. Amdewar Godavari and Chapram […]

A new framework to improve high computing performance

Credit: CC0 Public Domain From a luxury to a day-to-day necessity, computing isn’t quite what it used to be. As applications like machine learning and 5G mobile networks become the norm, the need for high computing performance has never been greater. This has also necessitated the development of more energy-efficient and cost-effective systems like “chiplets” […]

AI speech analysis may aid in assessing and preventing potential suicides, says researcher

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Speech is critical to detecting suicidal ideation and a key to understanding the mental and emotional state of people experiencing it. Suicide hotline counselors are trained to quickly analyze speech variation to better help callers through a crisis. But just as no system is perfect, there is room for error in […]

Mathematical formulation of hazardous scenarios for automated driving systems

Table of ISO 34502 hazardous scenarios which arise particularly from hazardous elements in the decision phase. This table is cited from ISO 34502:2022. Credit: NII A research group including Professor Hasuo Ichiro of the Information Systems Architecture Science Research Division of the National Institute of Informatics, Dr. Waga Masaki, Assistant Professor of the Department of […]

Researchers develop a new way to instruct dance in virtual reality

The WAVE technique developed by Aalto University researchers is based on anticipating future movement, such as a turn. Credit: Markus Laattala Researchers at Aalto University were looking for better ways to instruct dance choreography in virtual reality. The new WAVE technique they developed will be presented in May at the CHI conference for human-computer interaction […]

Initiative encourages computer science students to incorporate ethics into their work

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Computer science students at the University of Toronto are learning how to incorporate ethical considerations into the design and development of new technologies such as artificial intelligence with the help of a unique undergraduate initiative. The Embedded Ethics Education Initiative (E3I) aims to provide students with the ability to critically assess […]

As quantum computers advance, encryption methods will need to keep up

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Imagine the tap of a card that bought you a cup of coffee this morning also let a hacker halfway across the world access your bank account and buy themselves whatever they liked. Now imagine it wasn’t a one-off glitch, but it happened all the time: imagine the locks that secure […]

Computer scientists unveil novel attacks on cybersecurity

The new paper, “Pathfinder: High-Resolution Control-Flow Attacks Exploiting the Conditional Branch Predictor,” details two novel attacks that could compromise the billions of Intel processors in use. Credit: Hosein Yavarzadeh Researchers have found two novel types of attacks that target the conditional branch predictor found in high-end Intel processors, which could be exploited to compromise billions […]

‘POLAR’ lowers the adoption barrier for adaptive query processing in database systems

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain The preprint “POLAR: Adaptive and Non-invasive Join Order Selection via Plans of Least Resistance” introduces an adaptive query processing technique that lowers the adoption barrier for existing database systems while decreasing the risk of performance cliffs from ill-performing query plans. BIFOLD researcher David Justen started the POLAR project as a collaboration […]

Adobe’s VideoGigaGAN uses AI to make blurry videos sharp and clear

We present VideoGigaGAN, a generative video super-resolution model that can upsample videos with high-frequency details while maintaining temporal consistency. Top: we show the comparison of our approach with TTVSR consistency and BasicVSR++. Our method produces temporally consistent videos with more fine-grained detailed than previous methods. Bottom: our model can produce high-quality videos with 8× super-resolution. […]

Emulating neurodegeneration and aging in artificial intelligence systems

The upper panel is the question asked to LLaMA 2 model, and the lower panels are the answers, displaying an intriguing qualitative decline in understanding and answering the question as one increases the noise from left to right. Compared to the answer on the left, one can see the middle answer still processes the proper […]

With a game show as his guide, researcher uses AI to predict deception

Credit: Pixabay/CC0 Public Domain Using data from a 2002 game show, a Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has taught a computer how to tell if you are lying. “Human behaviors are a rich source of deception and trust cues,” said Xunyu Chen, assistant professor in the Department of Information Systems in VCU’s School of Business. “Utilizing […]

Coordinate-wise monotonic transformations enable privacy-preserving age estimation with 3D face point cloud

Four elementary monotonic functions (exponential, logarithmic, square, and sine) were applied immediately after Coordinate-Wise Rank Transformation (CRT) and normalized to [-1, 1] in a coordinate-wise manner. The three circles on the radar plot correspond to the first-order Model Indistinguishability, the second-order Model Indistinguishability and the Mean Absolute Error of the exp(CRT) model (the largest among […]

New mitigation framework reduces bias in classification outcomes

(A) The “propose-review” scenario between Alice and Bob. (B) Measuring attributes’ pairwise distances. (C) Determining attributes’ bias concentrations. (D) Transforming bias-prone attributes. Credit: Intelligent Computing (2024). DOI: 10.34133/icomputing.0083 We use computers to help us make (hopefully) unbiased decisions. The problem is that machine-learning algorithms do not always make fair classifications if human bias is embedded […]

New logarithmic step size for stochastic gradient descent

Credit: M. Soheil Shamaee, S. Fathi Hafshejani, Z. Saeidian The step size, often referred to as the learning rate, plays a pivotal role in optimizing the efficiency of the stochastic gradient descent (SGD) algorithm. In recent times, multiple step size strategies have emerged for enhancing SGD performance. However, a significant challenge associated with these step […]

Scientists revisit multi-dimensional classification from a dimension-wise perspective

Figure 1.The imbalance shift from one LD to another. The color map counts the number of instances over two LDs on Zappos. The numerical values annotated on the colored blocks in the figure represent values post logarithmic transformation. Many major class instances become minor ones when the LD changes. In other words, the major/minor class […]

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